A pygmy goat is a small breed of domestic goat. Although they produce a very large amount of milk for their size, and can be eaten, pygmy goats are not typically used for milk or meat, unlike larger dairy and meat goat breeds. Pygmy goats tend to be more robust and breed more continually throughout the year than either dairy or meat goats. They are also sometimes kept as pets in urban or suburban backyards, depending on local regulation of livestock ownership. The pygmy goat is quite hardy, an asset in a wide variety of settings, and can adapt to virtually all climates. The anatomy of a pygmy goat shows it has many features specific to pygmy goats, such as a thurl, but also has features similar to other animals, such as the dew claw which is also found on dogs.
Females, called does, weigh 23 to 34 kg (51 to 75 lb) and males, called bucks, weigh 27 to 39 kg (60 to 86 lb). Wither height ranges from 16 to 23 in (41 to 58 cm). Their color can range from white caramel, medium caramel, dark caramel, dark (red) caramel, silver-light grey agouti, medium grey agouti, dark grey agouti, black with frosted points, solid black, and brown agouti.
Pygmy goats are precocious and polyestrous breeders; bearing one to four young every nine to twelve months after a five month gestation period. Does are usually bred for the first time at about twelve to eighteen months, although they may conceive as early as two months if care is not taken to separate them early from bucklings. Newborn kids will nurse almost immediately, begin eating grain and roughage within a week, and are weaned by three months of age.
Polyestrous sexual behavior means that they experience heat and can be freshened (made to come into milk production) year-round. If milking is a priority, a continuous supply of milk can be obtained by breeding two or more pygmy does alternately. Though some full-size dairy breeds are also noted for polyestrous sexual behavior.
Pygmy goats originated in the Cameroon Valley of West Africa. They were imported into the United States from European zoos in the 1950s for use in zoos as well as research animals. They were eventually acquired by private breeders and quickly gained popularity as pets and exhibition animals due to their good-natured personalities, friendliness and hardy constitution. Today you can find them as house pets and at petting zoos.
Pygmy goats are adaptable to most climates. Their primary diet consists of greens and grains. They enjoy having items to jump on and may be able to leap onto small vehicles. They are also in need of a shed and open area accessible at all times. They also need a companion that doesn’t necessarily have to be its own species. They are prey animals and should therefore be sheltered in a predator-proof area -especially at night. Goats require fresh water at all times or they won’t drink it. Pygmy goats are often affectionate if they are treated with respect. They can also be trained, though it requires quite a bit of work. It is important to make sure pygmy goats are comfortable and warm during the wintry months, when cold weather is abundant. Simple measures such as feeding pygmy goats luke warm water and luke warm food, as well as ensuring their living quarters are free from draughts, can make pygmy goats a lot happier during the winter.
- Average lifespan 10-15 years
- Normal body temperature 101.5-104°f (39.1 – 40°c)
- Normal pulse rate 60-90 beats per minute (faster for kids)
- Normal respiration rate 15-30 per minute
- Rumen movement 1-1.5 per minute
- Gestation period 145-153 days (average 150 days)
- Heat (oestrus)cycle 18-24 days (average 21 days)
- Length of heat 12-48 hours (average 1 day)
- Weaning age (recommended) 12 weeks
- Males sexually mature 10-12 weeks
- Females onset of heat 7-12 months*
- Dehorning (by veterinary surgeon) By 7 days
- Castration; Using elastrator ring 7 days
- Surgical method (by vet) No age limit
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